A Tangle of Opiliones

The results are in!! Last week I ran a poll to get help in picking the best name for a congregation of Opiliones (i.e., Daddy long-legs, Harvestmenpersons). HUNDREDS of you voted, but the clear winner, with just about 55% of the votes is…

“A Tangle of Opiliones”

Opiliones

A congregation of Opiliones (photo by D. Ringer, reproduced here under CC License 3.0)

This name was proposed by “Antnommer” on Twitter, and it is quite fitting. When thousands of Opiliones hang out together, it does indeed look like a full-on tangle of Arachnids.

Thanks, everyone, for participating in the poll, and helping to find a perfect collective noun for these astounding Arachinds.

Here are the poll results, for those interested:

PollResultsAnd some of the “other” suggestions:

PollResults_Other

Here’s another video to illustrate a rather fine tangle of Opiliones

 

What do you call a congregation of Opiliones? (Poll)

The Arachnid order Opiliones are interesting animals, although vastly understudied. In the English speaking world, they commonly known as Daddy long-legs, Harvestmenpersons, or Shepherd spiders. Opilio, in latin, refers to “shepherd”, and many temperate/northern species have exceedingly long-legs, perhaps in reference to Shepherds on stilts, watching their flocks. The name ‘harvest’ likely refers to the natural history of some species who tend to see higher population numbers in the autumn (‘harvest’ season in the north). Many species are also known to form very dense ‘congregations’, sometimes numbering in the thousands.

Opiliones

A congregation of Opiliones (photo by D. Ringer, reproduced here under CC License 3.0)

I was doing a bit of art on the weekend, and was drawing such a congregation, and this led me to consider what to call a collection of Opiliones. There are great sites out there devoted to Animal Congregations, but none of them had a collective noun for Opiliones (spiders, by the way, are sometimes referred to as a clutter or cluster)

Time to change that. After some Twitter discussions, I present to you a Poll, and I am looking for your votes!

–POLL IS CLOSED—

A congregation of Opiliones.

A congregation of Opiliones.

I’ll leave this Poll open until around the 8 of March – and then write an update! Please share!

…for inspiration, here’s a video for you:

The Arachnophile: hunting the wolf

Rabidosa

A wolf in the genus Rabidosa (photo by Sean McCann)

 

Hunting the wolf

 

In summer’s forest.

Armed with hand lens,

Forceps, vials, eyes and field book.

Up. Down. Under rocks, leaves, rotten logs.

Just look.

Behold! Scurry, pause, dash, dart.

Find that dark place.

All in eights: all is right.

Pedipalps and spinnerets; chelicerae and pedicel.

Chevrons? Eye shine? Perhaps a sac of treasures?

Pardosa, Trochosa, or Rabidosa?

Envisioning authors, keys, maps, habitus.

Line drawings come alive.

A marvelous wolf, hunted.

What a find! The Arachnophile’s delight!

Into the vial, destined for deep freeze.

Wait, think, imagine.

It is precious.

Not Tolkien’s monsters, or a reclusive terror.

It is Anansi, Charlotte, and Darwin’s gossamer.

Nature and natural.

History beyond our own.

Preserve? Conserve? Observe?

Catch, release, smile.

 

Agelenopsis webs

A hot, humid summer forest, with evidence of spiders.

 

 Notes:

1) The Lycosidae are impressive spiders, and go by the common name of “wolf spiders”. Here are some facts about wolf spiders.

2) This was inspired by daydreaming. Winter can be long and I’ve been thinking a lot about summer field work, and collecting arachnids in a hot, humid forest. I’ve been thinking about observing, collecting, preserving specimens. Bringing specimens back to a lab isn’t always necessarily. Sometimes watching is enough.

Frozen spiders

Winter has arrived here in the Montreal area. Brrrrrr. Last night was below -25C, there’s a bitter wind, and about a foot of snow on the ground. I found my warm mitts and down jacket, but our arthropod friends don’t have this luxury! This time of year really gets me thinking about how spiders are handling the weather….

What do spiders do in the winter?

Some spiders don’t overwinter at all, and instead die at the end of the Fall, with their hardy egg cases doing the overwintering. Many other spiders, however,  do remain active under the snow, in a little zone called the ‘subnivean zone‘ – between the snow and the ground. Others hunker down, nestled in leaf litter, under bark, or in otherwise concealed locations. On slightly warmer winter days, spiders can also become quite active on the snow surface. But all of this is generally not enough to guarantee survival, because even subnivean zones and hidey-holes can get very cold.

Maybe they freeze, and come back to life after it warms up? You may be inclined to think so – it certainly happens with a lot of insects. And, check out this photo that popped up on Twitter a week or so ago, by Nash Turley. It shows a fishing spider under a layer of thin ice, and it was still alive after Nash helped it out of its icy tomb. What the heck?

Capture

A fishing spider, under ice.

Did this spider  ‘flash freeze’, and like a good science fiction movie, pop back to life once it warmed up?

Probably not… I think ‘flash frozen’ spiders probably won’t survive. The literature generally suggests that spiders are not freeze tolerant. In other words, their tissues cannot survive the process of freezing, and ice will cause irreparable damage. Instead, I suspect Nash’s spider was already prepared or preparing for winter, and got trapped under the ice, but hadn’t yet frozen. It’s physiological adaptations involve some nifty and super-cool tricks.

Spiders are generally thought to be freeze avoidant* (e.g. here’s a paper on this), and through the process of accumulating glycols in their blood (i.e., antifreeze), are able to supercool. This means their tissues remain unfrozen at temperatures well below freezing, because they have physiologically adapted via the production of special antifreeze compounds that stops them from turning into ice. It’s a neat trick, and one that is relatively common in the invertebrate world. Of course, supercooling alone doesn’t ensure survival at extremely cold temperatures, and that’s where other adaptations come into play. Spiders will therefore find their way to the relatively insulated subnivean zone, or deep down in soil or leaf-litter. These behavioural adaptations (i.e., selecting overwintering sites), combined with supercooling superpowers, helps them get through the cold seasons. 

For me, I’ll stick to my down jacket, and enjoy how Hydro Quebec helps keep our buildings warm!
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* actually, we don’t know nearly enough about spiders and their overwintering physiology. I should state that I assume most spiders are freeze avoidant, based on the current literature on the topic – there’s a LOT more species to study, though!